A look at the human body

How does the skeleton move? Muscles throughout the human body are attached to bones. Nerves around a muscle can signal the muscle to move. When the nervous system sends commands to skeletal muscles, the muscles contract. That contraction produces movement at the joints between bones.

The human body is an amazing machine. Find out how it works, from head to toe.

Bones of the appendicular skeleton facilitate movement, while bones of the axial skeleton protect internal organs. All skeletal structures belong to either the appendicular skeleton girdles and limbs or to the axial skeleton skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage. Bones of the human skeletal system are categorized by their shape and function into five types. The femur is an example of a long bone. The frontal bone is a flat bone. The patella, also called the knee cap, is a sesamoid bone. Carpals in the hand and tarsals in the feet are examples of short bones. The outside of a long bone consists of a layer of compact bone surrounding spongy bone.

Inside a long bone is a medullary cavity filled with yellow bone marrow. Red bone marrow is soft tissue located in networks of spongy bone tissue inside some bones. In adults the red marrow in bones of the cranium, vertebrae, scapulae, sternum, ribs, pelvis, and at the epiphyseal ends of the large long bones produce blood cells. One way to classify joints is by range of motion. Immovable joints include the sutures of the skull, the articulations between teeth and the mandible, and the joint located between the first pair of ribs and the sternum.

Anatomy: A Cutaway Look Inside the Human Body by Hélène Druvert,‎ Jean-Claude Druvert

Some joints have slight movement; an example is the distal joint between the tibia and fibula. This future, sometimes called the hivemind — because everyone is jacked into AI and one another simultaneously — is a controversial outcome. But economics might force more of the transhuman future than people want.

Biology is simply too limited for us to remain competitive for much longer. The proportion of people who die at 26 is now less than one in a thousand. If we eliminate ageing, that rate will stay the same with each passing year: extrapolate from that and you could have people living for thousands of years. The single tipping point will consist of a combination of a number of therapies that repair various types of damage that accumulate in the body. We have worked to classify these types of damage into seven big categories, which allows us to work out how we might treat them.

One of them is loss of cells, where they are dying and not being automatically replaced by the division of other cells. Different organs need slightly different types — but only slightly different, which is why the classification is useful. The benefits will be extraordinarily valuable; it will pay for itself in no time. Any country that makes the political decision not to pay for this through taxation will soon become bankrupt, as other countries keep their chronologically elderly populations contributing to society. Overpopulation is really about pollution — the damage that people do.

But we are acquiring solar technology, desalination, many things that will reduce the harm we do to the planet and therefore increase its capacity. Human beings will evolve.

The parts of the body

We were sea creatures, then we were living in the trees, then we became human. Soon we will become something else. Technology is part of our lives and it will become part of our evolutionary journey, too. In , I designed an extra sense for myself.

I call it the seismic sense. My business partner, Neil Harbisson , has an antenna implanted in his skull that allows him to hear colour waves.

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It picks up colour frequency, which creates vibrations in his skull, which he perceives as sound. His colour perception is now greater than ordinary human perception as it includes ultraviolet and infrared. A friend has extra senses in his ears that can detect atmospheric pressure and allow him to predict the weather. Instead of uploading new senses for our phone we will soon be uploading new senses for the self. We have new body parts that give us access to perceptions that are beyond usual human perception.

I now have two beats in my body, a heartbeat and an earth beat. We can be inspired by other creatures and how they perceive reality. We are entering the Anthropocene — an era in which it is humans who are the most critical to the way life on the planet evolves. Artificial intelligence and gene-editing technology mean the human being has become a design space.

The human will become very different, as we fuse our individual selves into techno-human networks. At the same time, our individual identities have become a new battle space — and the implications for cognition are huge.

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Facts and Information About the Human Body

Our cognition is not as effective as we think. People are responding by falling back into simple narratives and identity politics as a defence against this complexity. Malign actors are learning how to manipulate these identities. Alcohol avoids the normal digestive process and goes right into the bloodstream. About 20 percent of the alcohol consumed is absorbed in the stomach, and about 80 percent is absorbed in the small intestine.

Central Nervous System The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord, and when the nervous system is working smoothly, it is amazingly efficient.

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But alcohol is a depressant of the CNS, meaning it slows activity down. The degree to which brain activity slows down depends on how much, and how fast, a person drinks. Circulatory System The circulatory system includes the heart; a system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries; and blood.