Visa and Mastercard have also developed standards for using EMV cards in devices to support CNP card not present transactions over the telephone and Internet.
In February , computer scientists from Cambridge University demonstrated that an implementation of EMV PIN entry is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack but only implementations where the PIN was validated offline were vulnerable. The customer hands their card to the cashier at the point of sale who then passes the card through a magnetic reader or makes an imprint from the raised text of the card.
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In the former case, the system verifies account details and prints a slip for the customer to sign. In the case of a mechanical imprint, the transaction details are filled in, a list of stolen numbers is consulted, and the customer signs the imprinted slip. In both cases the cashier must verify that the customer's signature matches that on the back of the card to authenticate the transaction. Using the signature on the card as a verification method has a number of security flaws, the most obvious being the relative ease with which cards may go missing before their legitimate owners can sign them.
Another involves the erasure and replacement of legitimate signature, and yet another involves the forgery of the correct signature on the card. The invention of the silicon integrated circuit chip in led to the idea of incorporating it onto a plastic smart card in the late s.
Geldkarte in Germany also predates EMV. EMV was designed to allow cards and terminals to be backwardly compatible with these standards. France has since migrated all its card and terminal infrastructure to EMV.
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EMV originally stood for E uropay , M astercard , and V isa , the three companies that created the standard. The EMV standard was initially written in and There are two major benefits to moving to smart-card-based credit card payment systems: improved security with associated fraud reduction , and the possibility for finer control of "offline" credit-card transaction approvals. One of the original goals of EMV was to provide for multiple applications on a card: for a credit and debit card application or an e-purse.
The common debit application ID is somewhat of a misnomer as each "common" debit application actually uses the resident card association application. EMV chip card transactions improve security against fraud compared to magnetic stripe card transactions that rely on the holder's signature and visual inspection of the card to check for features such as hologram. The processing time is comparable to online transactions, in which communications delay accounts for the majority of the time, while cryptographic operations at the terminal take comparatively little time.
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The supposed increased protection from fraud has allowed banks and credit card issuers to push through a "liability shift", such that merchants are now liable as of 1 January in the EU region and 1 October in the US for any fraud that results from transactions on systems that are not EMV-capable. Although not the only possible method, the majority of implementations of EMV cards and terminals confirm the identity of the cardholder by requiring the entry of a personal identification number PIN rather than signing a paper receipt.
Whether or not PIN authentication takes place depends upon the capabilities of the terminal and programming of the card.
Under the previous system, a customer typically had to hand their card to a sales clerk to pay for a transaction. When credit cards were first introduced, merchants used mechanical rather than magnetic portable card imprinters that required carbon paper to make an imprint. They did not communicate electronically with the card issuer, and the card never left the customer's sight. The merchant had to verify transactions over a certain currency limit by telephoning the card issuer. During the s in the United States, many merchants subscribed to a regularly-updated list of stolen or otherwise invalid credit card numbers.
This list was commonly printed in booklet form on newsprint, in numerical order, much like a slender phone book, yet without any data aside from the list of invalid numbers. Checkout cashiers were expected to thumb through this booklet each and every time a credit card was presented for payment of any amount, prior to approving the transaction, which incurred a short delay. Later, equipment electronically contacted the card issuer, using information from the magnetic stripe to verify the card and authorize the transaction.
This was much faster than before, but required the transaction to occur in a fixed location. Consequently, if the transaction did not take place near a terminal in a restaurant, for example the clerk or waiter had to take the card away from the customer and to the card machine. It was easily possible at any time for a dishonest employee to swipe the card surreptitiously through a cheap machine that instantly recorded the information on the card and stripe; in fact, even at the terminal, a thief could bend down in front of the customer and swipe the card on a hidden reader.
This made illegal cloning of cards relatively easy, and a more common occurrence than before. Since the introduction of payment card Chip and PIN, however, cloning of the chip is not feasible; only the magnetic stripe can be copied, and a copied card cannot be used by itself on a terminal requiring a PIN. The introduction of Chip and PIN coincided with wireless data transmission technology becoming inexpensive and widespread. In addition to mobile-phone-based magnetic readers, merchant personnel can now bring wireless PIN pads to the customer, so the card is never out of the cardholder's sight.
Thus, both chip-and-PIN and wireless technologies can be used to reduce the risks of unauthorized swiping and card cloning. Rather than physically signing a receipt for identification purposes, the user just enters a personal identification number PIN , typically of 4 to 6 digits in length.
This number must correspond to the information stored on the chip. Chip and PIN technology makes it much harder for fraudsters to use a found card, so if someone steals a card, they can't make fraudulent purchases unless they know the PIN. Chip and signature, on the other hand, differentiates itself from chip and PIN by verifying a consumer's identity with a signature.
While EMV technology has helped reduce crime at the point of sale, fraudulent transactions have shifted to more vulnerable telephone , Internet , and mail order transactions — known in the industry as card-not-present or CNP transactions. Using this protocol, data is exchanged in application protocol data units APDUs.
This comprises sending a command to a card, the card processing it, and sending a response. EMV uses the following commands:. An EMV transaction has the following steps:  [ third-party source needed ]. The intent of application selection was to let cards contain completely different applications—for example GSM and EMV. However, EMV developers implemented application selection as a way of identifying the type of product, so that all product issuers Visa, Mastercard, etc. The way application selection is prescribed in EMV is a frequent source of interoperability problems between cards and terminals.
Book 1  of the EMV standard devotes 15 pages to describing the application selection process. An application identifier AID is used to address an application in the card. This is followed by a proprietary application identifier extension PIX , which enables the application provider to differentiate among the different applications offered. The terminal sends the get processing options command to the card.
When issuing this command, the terminal supplies the card with any data elements requested by the card in the processing options data objects list PDOL. The PDOL a list of tags and lengths of data elements is optionally provided by the card to the terminal during application selection. The card responds with the application interchange profile AIP , a list of functions to perform in processing the transaction. The card also provides the application file locator AFL , a list of files and records that the terminal needs to read from the card.
Smart cards store data in files. These all must be read using the read record command. EMV does not specify which files data is stored in, so all the files must be read. EMV defines tag values for all data used in card processing [ citation needed ]. The purpose of the processing restrictions is to see if the card should be used. Three data elements read in the previous step are checked. If any of these checks fails, the card is not necessarily declined. This feature lets, for example, card issuers permit cardholders to keep using expired cards after their expiry date, but for all transactions with an expired card to be performed on-line.
Offline data authentication is a cryptographic check to validate the card using public-key cryptography. There are three different processes that can be undertaken depending on the card:. Cardholder verification is used to evaluate whether the person presenting the card is the legitimate cardholder. They are. The terminal uses a CVM list read from the card to determine the type of verification to perform.
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Different terminals support different CVMs. Terminal risk management is only performed in devices where there is a decision to be made whether a transaction should be authorised on-line or offline.
If transactions are always carried out on-line e. Terminal risk management checks the transaction amount against an offline ceiling limit above which transactions should be processed on-line. It is also possible to have a 1 in an online counter, and a check against a hot card list which is only necessary for off-line transactions. If the result of any of these tests is positive, the terminal sets the appropriate bit in the terminal verification results TVR. The results of previous processing steps are used to determine whether a transaction should be approved offline, sent online for authorization, or declined offline.
This is done using a combination of data objects known as terminal action codes TACs held in the terminal and issuer action codes IACs read from the card. Both types of action code take the values Denial, Online, and Default. Each action code contains a series of bits which correspond to the bits in the Terminal verification results TVR , and are used in the terminal's decision whether to accept, decline or go on-line for a payment transaction.
The TAC is set by the card acquirer; in practice card schemes advise the TAC settings that should be used for a particular terminal type depending on its capabilities. The IAC is set by the card issuer; some card issuers may decide that expired cards should be rejected, by setting the appropriate bit in the Denial IAC. Other issuers may want the transaction to proceed on-line so that they can in some cases allow these transactions to be carried out.
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